of the sacred plant; and, instructed by
latter, the Kiowa and Comanche by 1880 developed
ritual essentially as it is still practiced, and spread it
most tribes of the Plains and beyond.
The Kiowa also developed what might
be called a
distinguished school of native artists, painting with
Caucasion materials in an original style developed by
and marked by a combination of sensitive
delicacy and firm decorative
Of this group, Monroe Tsa Toke, who died in 1937,
one. He was also an ardent Peyote adherent.
The present book represents a series of his paintings
refer to the dramatically mystical cult to which he
was so passionately attached, together with the
explanation, in his own
words, of the meaning of the
symbols, and visions of the religion. The combina-
of a deep belief with its fervent aesthetic expres-
make the record of Tsa Toke's life work an unusual
see "Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color; with Intro-
by Oscar Brousse Jacobson," Nice, 1929. The painters reproduced
Tsa Toke are Mopope, Hokeah, Asah and Bonjétah.